Harnessing T-cell Immunity for Vaccines: A Comprehensive 2 Review


T-cell immunity in vaccines makes it possible for longer-term immunity, as it acts dually, 7 first assisting the B cell antibody production and, secondly, removing the infected cells, though it 8 does not affect the infecting virus directly.

The recent addition of mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 has 9 brought urgency to adding the T-cell immunity function to these vaccines and broadened the scope 10 of vaccines that can be engineered for long immunity. This article provides a historical perspective, 11 the current and future development, and outlines how T-cell immunity can be added to vaccines.

A 12 case study of the COVID-19 vaccines provides insight into the possibility of creating a model vac- 13 cine. Also presented, for the first time, are the mRNA vaccine designs for long-term infective dis- 14 eases such as malaria, typhoid, HIV, HPV, and pneumococcus.

The article also provides a perspec- 15 tive on the intellectual property of this fast-expanding field of therapeutics to help new developers 16 carve their strategies more financially feasible.

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